Guatemala’s Staple Food: Tortillas and You Need to Know About it

Freshly made tortillas on top of a comal next to a man holding a rolling pin
Tortillas are the backbone of the Guatemala and Central America cuisine, having a strong presence from the indigenous cultures like the Mayans to nowadays.

Explore the heart of Guatemala’s culinary heritage with tortillas—more than just food, they’re a cultural symbol and testament to tradition. When it comes to Guatemala’s culinary scene, there’s one staple that holds a special place in the hearts and stomachs of its people: tortillas. 

These simple, yet incredibly versatile, flatbreads are more than just a food item. They are a cultural symbol, a testament to tradition, and a source of comfort for Guatemalans of all backgrounds. They can eat up to 10–20 per meal.

In this article, we will dive deep into the realm of Guatemalan tortillas, shedding light on their historical significance, preparation, and the indispensable role they hold in the nation’s vibrant legacy.

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Brief History of Tortillas in Guatemala

  • Tortillas have been a dietary cornerstone in Guatemala for centuries. Their origins can be traced back to the ancient Mayan civilization, where maize (corn) was cultivated and used as a primary food source.

    Maize was considered a sacred crop, and it held deep cultural and spiritual significance for the Mayans.
  • The term “tortilla” originates from the Nahuatl word “tlaxcalli,” which denotes a maize-based flatbread created by the Aztecs
  • When Spanish conquistadors arrived in Central America in the 16th century, they encountered and adopted the tradition of making tortillas from the indigenous peoples, including the Maya.
  • Tortillas have remained a fundamental part of Guatemalan cuisine ever since. They are served with virtually every meal, from breakfast to dinner, and are a symbol of the country’s indigenous heritage.

Staple Food in Guatemala

Staple food is a basic and regularly consumed food item that forms the foundation of a typical diet in a specific region or culture. The staple food in Guatemala is maize (corn). Corn holds a prominent place in Guatemalan cuisine and culture.

It’s used to make tortillas, tamales, atole (a hot, thickened beverage), and various other traditional dishes.

Corn’s versatility and significance make it an essential component of Guatemalan meals in restaurants, offering both sustenance and a connection to the country’s rich agricultural heritage.


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Corn is a versatile type of crop and is widely across several dishes and also DRINKS! Check out Top 10 Guatemalan Drinks You’ll Love to Try

Tortillas Recipe

Making tortillas is a skill that has been passed down through generations in Guatemala. Tortillas are made by forming dough from maize (corn), which is then flattened into thin rounds and cooked on a hot griddle or comal.

The process is deceptively simple, but it requires practice to achieve the perfect balance of flavors, textures, and consistency. Here’s a brief overview of how tortillas are made:

Maize Preparation

The process begins with selecting and cooking maize. Dried corn kernels are soaked in a solution containing lime (calcium oxide) to make them more digestible and to remove the husks. Once soaked, the maize is ground into a fine masa (dough).

Masa Formation

The masa is then mixed with water and a pinch of salt to create a pliable dough. This dough is divided into small portions, which are rolled into balls.

Pressing and Cooking

Each dough ball is placed on a flat surface and pressed into a thin, round shape using a tortilla press or a wooden rolling pin. The flattened dough is then cooked on a hot griddle or comal until it puffs up slightly and develops a delicious, slightly charred flavor.


Freshly cooked tortillas are typically served hot off the griddle. They can be folded, stacked, or used as a vessel for a variety of fillings and toppings, making them incredibly versatile.

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Black and Brown Tortillas

Black and brown tortillas are a variation of traditional white corn tortillas. These variations are often made using different types of corn, which can result in varying colors and flavors.

Black Tortillas

a bunch of black tortillas one on top of each other
There are many types of corn and with that, a variety of different tortillas like black tortillas are made from purple corn.

Black tortillas, sometimes referred to as “tortillas negras,” are typically made from a type of corn known as “maíz criollo.” This corn has a deep purple-black color.

The black tortillas have a distinct earthy and nutty flavor. They are commonly found in some regions of Central America.

Brown Tortillas 

Brown tortillas are usually made from corn varieties that have a brownish hue. The color difference is due to the specific type of maize used in making the tortillas. Brown tortillas may have a heartier taste compared to traditional white corn tortillas.

Both black and brown tortillas are prized for their unique flavors and are often considered a more traditional and artisanal choice compared to white corn tortillas. These variations are sometimes enjoyed for their distinct taste and cultural significance.

Other Types Of Tortillas

There are several other types of tortillas, each with its own characteristics and regional variations. Some examples include:

Blue Corn Tortillas: 

These tortillas are made from blue corn and have a slightly sweeter and nuttier flavor compared to white corn tortillas. They are common in some parts of Mexico and the southwestern United States.

Hominy Tortillas: 

Made from hominy, which is maize that has been treated with alkali, these tortillas have a unique flavor and texture. They are often used in dishes like pozole.

Flour Tortillas: 

Unlike corn tortillas, flour tortillas are made from wheat flour. They are larger, softer, and often used for burritos and soft tacos.

Nopal Tortillas: 

These tortillas incorporate nopal cactus into the dough, adding a slightly tangy and unique flavor to the tortillas. They are popular in some Mexican regions.

Herb or Seasoned Tortillas: 

These tortillas are made by adding herbs or spices to the dough, resulting in flavored tortillas with added taste.

Sweet Tortillas: 

These tortillas are made with ingredients like sugar, cinnamon, and vanilla, making them suitable for sweet dishes or desserts.

Tortillas in Guatemalan Cuisine

Tortillas are more than just a side dish in Guatemala; they’re a fundamental component of countless traditional dishes. Here are a few iconic Guatemalan foods that rely on tortillas:

Tortillas with Guacamole

 A simple yet delightful combination, this dish features freshly made tortillas served with a side of creamy guacamole.


Guatemalan tacos are often made with small tortillas and filled with various ingredients like seasoned meats, salsa, and fresh vegetables.


Unlike the Mexican version, Guatemalan enchiladas use tortillas as the base. They’re topped with shredded cabbage, carrots, beets, and tomato sauce.


These are a beloved Guatemalan dish made of masa, often stuffed with meat or vegetables, and wrapped in a banana leaf or corn husk before being steamed.


This rich, spicy stew is typically served with rice and tortillas. The tortillas help soak up the flavorful sauce.


A hearty beef stew, halacha, is traditionally served with rice and tortillas, making it a hearty and satisfying meal.

Chiles Rellenos

Large, mild chilies are stuffed with meat and vegetables, battered, and fried. They are often served with tortillas and tomato sauce.

📖 Recommended Reading: If you’re looking for more useful information, check out the 20 Popular Street Foods In Guatemala You Must Try.

Where to Find Authentic Guatemalan Tortillas

To experience the true essence of Guatemalan tortillas, you must indulge in the ones made by local artisans in traditional villages. 

  • Street vendors

Throughout the country, they serve fresh tortillas. Every region may offer a unique twist on tortilla preparation, so be sure to savor the local variations.

If you’re now craving a taste of tortillas, it’s time to book your Guatemala tickets. And, for added peace of mind as well as safety, don’t forget to secure your travels with comprehensive travel insurance.

Are tortillas a healthy choice for consumption?

Tortillas can be a healthy choice when filled with nutritious ingredients, but the type of tortilla, portion size, and toppings matter. Corn tortillas are generally a healthier option than flour tortillas.


Tortillas are more than a simple food item in Guatemala; they are a cultural emblem. To truly understand and appreciate the rich culinary traditions of this Central American nation, you must embrace the tortilla.

The next time you find yourself in Guatemala, make sure to savor the warm, comforting embrace of a freshly made tortilla—a taste of history and tradition you won’t soon forget.

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Last Updated on December 13, 2023

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